John Milton 's Lycidas first appeared in such a collection. Traube had focused too much on Horace's Satires. In fact medieval scholars were also guilty of over-schematism, associating Horace's different genres with the different ages of man. As mentioned before, the brilliance of his Odes may have discouraged imitation. He was influenced in particular by Hellenistic aesthetics of brevity, elegance and polish, as modeled in the work of Callimachus. Cheap editions were plentiful and fine editions were also produced, including one whose entire text was engraved by John Pine in copperplate.
He even emerged as "a quite Horatian Homer" in his translation of the Iliad. The fictional hero Tom Jones recited his verses with feeling. The sophisticated and flexible style that he had developed in his Satires was adapted to the more serious needs of this new genre. The later Middle Ages however gave special significance to Satires and Epistles, being considered Horace's mature works. Archilochus and Alcaeus were aristocratic Greeks whose poetry had a social and religious function that was immediately intelligible to their audiences but which became a mere artifice or literary motif when transposed to Rome. Horace's work probably survived in just two or three books imported into northern Europe from Italy. Dante referred to Horace as Orazio satiro, and he awarded him a privileged position in the first circle of Hell, with Homer , Ovid and Lucan. Both Horace and Lucilius were considered good role-models by Persius , who critiqued his own satires as lacking both the acerbity of Lucillius and the gentler touch of Horace. In that ode, the epic poet and the lyric poet are aligned with Stoicism and Epicureanism respectively, in a mood of bitter-sweet pathos. In it, Horace addresses the emperor Augustus directly with more confidence and proclaims his power to grant poetic immortality to those he praises. Epicureanism is the dominant influence, characterizing about twice as many of these odes as Stoicism. He also removed the ending of Odes 4. His verse letters in Latin were modelled on the Epistles and he wrote a letter to Horace in the form of an ode. Over time, he becomes more confident about his political voice. By the time he composed his Epistles, he was a critic of Cynicism along with all impractical and "high-falutin" philosophy in general. Cheap editions were plentiful and fine editions were also produced, including one whose entire text was engraved by John Pine in copperplate. Occasionally poems had had some resemblance to letters, including an elegiac poem from Solon to Mimnermus and some lyrical poems from Pindar to Hieron of Syracuse. Horace's part evinces the independent spirit, moral earnestness and critical insight that many readers look for in his poems. It is the least philosophical collection of his verses, excepting the twelfth ode, addressed to the dead Virgil as if he were living. For one modern scholar, however, Horace's personal qualities are more notable than the monumental quality of his achievement: Horace was often evoked by poets of the fourth century, such as Ausonius and Claudian. Justly to sound a Caeser's praise Demands a bold Horatian lyre. John Milton 's Lycidas first appeared in such a collection. Housman considered Odes 4. French editions of Horace were influential in England and these too were regularly bowdlerized.
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