The smuggling of wool out of the country, known as owling , was at one time punishable by the cutting off of a hand. Over the centuries, various British laws controlled the wool trade or required the use of wool even in burials. In each of the centers of the textile trade, the manufacturing process came to be subdivided into a collection of trades, overseen by an entrepreneur in a system called by the English the "putting-out" system, or "cottage industry", and the Verlagssystem by the Germans. Australia's colonial economy was based on sheep raising, and the Australian wool trade eventually overtook that of the Germans by , furnishing wool for Bradford , which developed as the heart of industrialized woolens production. By the end of the 14th century, Italy predominated, though Italian production turned to silk in the 16th century. A great deal of the value of woolen textiles was in the dyeing and finishing of the woven product. These small-scale farmers offer a wide selection of fleece. Only a few dozen of the millions of bales auctioned every year can be classified and marked 1PP.
Written contracts bound the artisans to specified terms. The network developed by the annual fairs meant the woolens of Provins might find their way to Naples , Sicily , Cyprus , Majorca , Spain , and even Constantinople. Pliny the Elder records in his Natural History that the reputation for producing the finest wool was enjoyed by Tarentum , where selective breeding had produced sheep with superior fleeces, but which required special care. Fernand Braudel traces the appearance of the system in the 13th-century economic boom, quoting a document of In Roman times, wool, linen , and leather clothed the European population; cotton from India was a curiosity of which only naturalists had heard, and silks , imported along the Silk Road from China , were extravagant luxury goods. The Industrial Revolution introduced mass production technology into wool and wool cloth manufacturing. Francesco Datini , the "merchant of Prato", established in an Arte della Lana for that small Tuscan city. Also, a thriving home-flock contingent of small-scale farmers raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the hand-spinning market. Only a few dozen of the millions of bales auctioned every year can be classified and marked 1PP. Breeds such as Lincoln , Romney , Drysdale , and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool from these sheep is usually used for making carpets. After the Restoration , fine English woolens began to compete with silks in the international market, partly aided by the Navigation Acts ; in , the English crown forbade its American colonies to trade wool with anyone but England herself. The English textile trade grew during the 15th century, to the point where export of wool was discouraged. A World War I -era poster sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture encouraging children to raise sheep to provide needed war supplies Due to decreasing demand with increased use of synthetic fibers, wool production is much less than what it was in the past. The suit was developed using Australian Merino wool, and it enables woven products made from wool, such as suits, trousers, and skirts, to be cleaned using a domestic shower at home. This bale was produced by the Hillcreston Pinehill Partnership and measured This wool is produced using an acid bath that removes the "scales" from the fiber, or by coating the fiber with a polymer that prevents the scales from attaching to each other and causing shrinkage. There are two categories of recycled wool also called reclaimed or shoddy wool. The importance of wool to the English economy can be seen in the fact that since the 14th century, the presiding officer of the House of Lords has sat on the " Woolsack ", a chair stuffed with wool. Economies of scale were instituted in the Cistercian houses, which had accumulated great tracts of land during the 12th and early 13th centuries, when land prices were low and labor still scarce. The smuggling of wool out of the country, known as owling , was at one time punishable by the cutting off of a hand. This fleece wool tested with an average yield of Before the flowering of the Renaissance , the Medici and other great banking houses of Florence had built their wealth and banking system on their textile industry based on wool, overseen by the Arte della Lana , the wool guild: History of clothing and textiles and The medieval English wool trade A illustration of a Tibetan man spinning wool Wild sheep were more hairy than woolly. In this system of producing wool cloth, once perpetuated in the production of Harris tweeds , the entrepreneur provides the raw materials and an advance, the remainder being paid upon delivery of the product. In medieval times, as trade connections expanded, the Champagne fairs revolved around the production of wool cloth in small centers such as Provins.
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